exp date isn't null, but text field is
Guidance for clinicians and healthcare staff on the diagnosis and treatment of Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Patients under the care of the paediatric cystic fibrosis unit RHC Glasgow
CF Team, medical staff covering general wards, pharmacists
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and aspergillus lung infection in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients – diagnosis and management RHC CF Unit Glasgow
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is seen in approximately 10% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can be difficult to diagnose. Diagnostic criteria require an evaluation of clinical and radiological signs, lung function trend and serum immunologic markers such as total Ig E , Aspergillus IgE and Aspergillus IgG.
Aspergillus fumigatus may or may not be present in respiratory cultures.
Treatment of ABPA includes a combination of oral Prednisolone plus an oral anti-fungal agent.
Due to difficulties with obtaining adequate drug levels with Itraconazole, Voriconazole is used as
1st line anti-fungal therapy. Long-term Voriconazole use has been associated with a rasied risk of skin cancer and so maximum duration of treatment is 3/12 then change to Posaconazole ( see Table for dosing ) if continuing ABPA treatment.
9mg/kg twice a day (max
350mg twice a day)
Body weight under
9mg/kg twice a day (max
350mg twice a day)
Body weight over 50kg
Dose as for child 1518years and body weight over 40kg
Body weight under
200mg twice a day for 2 doses then 100mg twice a day (may be increased to 150mg)
Body weight over 40kg
400mg twice a day for 2 doses then 200mg twice a day (may be increased to 300mg)
Take an hour before food or 2 hours after food
Suspension has 14 day expiry once reconstituted
Monitor U&E’s, LFT’s
Drug levels – trough level pre dose after
3 days. Aim for voriconazole level 1 - 6mg/L
Consult pharmacist if result out of range.
Adverse effects; Photosensitivity (prescribe sunscreen) GI upset, visual disturbance (colour and perceptual changes), liver abnormalities, cardiac effects (tachy/bradycardia, hypotension, arrhythmias,
Always check interactions; care with
other drugs that prolong the QT interval – ECG
Interacts with Ivacaftor –reduce Ivacaftor dose to 1xdose twice a week.
MAX 3/12 – then change to Posaconazole if continuing ABPA treatment
Monitor ABPA Serology, FEV1 and symptoms
< 8 years
10-12mg/kg/day in two doses . May require up to
Monitor levels. Monitor liver function tests monthly.
The tablet and oral suspension are not to be used interchangeably due to the differences in the dosing of each formulation.
Tablets should be used preferentially as more consistent levels may be obtained.
Suspension should be taken immediately following a meal (preferably fatty meal) to enhance absorption. If this is not possible, may need to use 200mg QDS dosing. Tablets can be taken with or without a meal.
Adverse effects; Photosensitivity (prescribe sunscreen) GI upset, visual disturbance (colour
and perceptual changes), liver abnormalities, cardiac effects (tachy/bradycardia, hypotension, arrhythmias)
Levels should be monitored on initiation, on amendment of dosage, if an interacting drug is commenced or efficacy is not observed.
Pre-dose samples (if not possible then a random sample) taken after at least 1 week on therapy.
Aim: 1 - 5mg/L For levels >5mg/L review dose with consultant and pharmacist.
Note interaction with Rifampicin. Levels when using suspension reduced by Ranitidine and proton pump inhibitors which should be stopped if possible.
Interacts with Ivacaftor –
reduce Ivacaftor dose to 1x dose twice a week
Always check interactions; care with other drugs that prolong the QT interval – ECG
Monitor U+E ; LFTs @ 2 weeks then monthly
300mg BD on day 1,
then 300mg OD thereafter Monitor levels. Monitor liver function tests monthly
This is a relatively rare complication in CF. Diagnosis may be suspected if some of the following criteria are met:
If pulmonary infection is believed to be due to Aspergillus a 2 week course of IV Voriconazole followed by oral Voriconazole may be considered.
2 WEEK COURSE
9mg/kg every 12 hours for 24hours then 8mg/kg every 12 hours thereafter
12 to 14 years and <50 kg
9mg/kg every 12 hours for 24hours then
8mg/kg every 12 hours thereafter
12 to 14 years and >50 kg and 15 to 17 years regardless of body weight
6mg/kg every 12 hours for 2 doses then
4mg/kg every 12 hours
(reduce to 3mg/kg if not tolerated)
CHANGE TO ORAL VORICONAZOLE AT END OF IV COURSE.
CONSIDER ORAL POSACONAZOLE IF ADEQUATE VORICONAZOLE
LEVELS CANNOT BE OBTAINED.
( SEE TABLE ABOVE FOR ORAL VORICONAZOLE / POSACONAZOLE DOSING) .
Give by intravenous infusion at a rate not exceeding 3mg/kg/hour. Monitor U&E’s, LFT’s weekly
Drug levels – trough level pre dose after 3 days. Aim for voriconazole level 1 - 6mg/L Consult pharmacist if result out of range
Adverse effects/interactions; Photosensitivity (prescribe sunscreen) GI upset, visual disturbance (colour
and perceptual changes), liver abnormalities, cardiac effects (tachy/bradycardia, hypotension, arrhythmias,QT prolongation. - care with other drugs that
prolong the QT interval - ECG
dose to 1xdose twice a week
MAX DURATION OF
IS 3 MONTHS THEN CHANGE
Serologic diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis through the detection of immunoglobulin G to Aspergillus fumigatus R.C. Barton et al. / Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 62 (2008) 287–291
Aspergillus bronchitis in cystic fibrosis Shoseyov D, Brownlee KG, Conway SP, Kerem E. Chest 2006;130:222–6.
Clinical Guidelines:Care of Children with Cystic Fibrosis Royal Brompton Hospital 2014/5
CF Trust “ Antibiotic Treatment for Cystic Fibrosis ” 2009 Section 7.9 ABPA
Pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical review M. Kousha, R. Tadi and A.O. Soubani Eur Respir Rev 2011; 20: 121, 156–174
Last reviewed: 09 April 2017
Next review: 01 July 2022
Author(s): Jane Wilkinson
Co-Author(s): Dr Louise Thomson, Dr Anne Devenny, Dr Christine Peters, Mr Steve Bowhay
Approved By: Paediatric Drugs & Therapeutics Committee